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Home Resources About PPP Models
Models of Public-Private Partnerships Print E-mail

The following terms are commonly used to describe partnership agreements in Canada, although this should not be considered a definitive or complete listing:

Finance Only: A private entity, usually a financial services company, funds a project directly or uses various mechanisms such as a long-term lease or bond issue.

Operation & Maintenance Contract (O & M): A private operator, under contract, operates a publicly-owned asset for a specified term. Ownership of the asset remains with the public entity.

Build-Finance: The private sector constructs an asset and finances the capital cost only during the construction period.

Design-Build-Finance-Maintain (DBFM): The private sector designs, builds and finances an asset and provides hard facility management (hard fm) or maintenance services under a long-term agreement.

Design-Build-Finance-Maintain-Operate (DBFMO): The private sector designs, builds and finances an asset, provides hard and/or soft facility management services as well as operations under a long-term agreement.

Build-Own-Operate (BOO): The private sector finances, builds, owns and operates a facility or service in perpetuity. The public constraints are stated in the original agreement and through on-going regulatory authority.

Concession: A private sector concessionaire undertakes investments and operates the facility for a fixed period of time after which the ownership reverts back to the public sector.

Other terms used in the PPP field:

RFEI: Request for Expressions of Interest

RFQ: Request for Qualifications

RFP: Request for Proposals

Scale of Public-Private Partnerships

The options available for delivery of public infrastructure range from design-build to outright privatization, where the government transfers all responsibilities, risks and rewards for service delivery to the private sector. Within this spectrum, public-private partnerships can be categorized based on the extent of public and private sector involvement and the degree of risk allocation. A simplified spectrum of public-private partnership models used in Canada follows: